What is made concrete

Concrete is an integral part of modern society. Roads and bridges to the buildings in which we live and work, everywhere around you there are structures and infrastructure comprising concrete.  With concrete being used as a vital part of our daily lives, not many know the science behind the cement that makes it so strong and reliable.

Composition of concrete

Concrete is made ​​from more than one type of material, which is a composite material. The composite is formed with a filling material, which is an aggregate used to make concrete texture, and a binder or paste used to “glue” or unite the filling. Cement and water are the binder. The mixture of aggregates, cement and water creates the useful compound is known as concrete.


Cement is made of clay, sand, iron ore and limestone, burnt together at extremely high temperatures. Limestone must be removed and ground into small pieces. A mixer combines the small pieces of limestone, iron ore, sand and clay to form a powder of the four components. A rotary kiln into a cylinder, then burning this material composition for a maximum of two hours.


When water is mixed with cement, a paste which binds all components is formed. The hydration process is a chemical reaction between the water and concrete components causing the concrete to harden. You must use pure water to ensure that the chemicals react properly and create strong cement. The relationship between cement and water is crucial for the production of useful cement. Too little or too much water can cause the cement to be too weak or unviable. Useful cement requires the perfect balance between the cement and water.


Aggregates are another component used in making concrete. They are materials such as sand or rocks that are added to the mixture of cement and water. Since cement is the most expensive part of manufacturing of concrete, adding the cheapest concrete aggregates gives you more for less. The final product is approximately 70% to 80% of the aggregates. Choosing a type of aggregate concrete depends on the type you want to produce.

You can create dense and strong concrete using dense aggregates. Similarly, the use of soft and porous aggregates, like sand, creates weaker concrete with less wear resistance. Like water, the good aggregates must be pure. Any impurities in the aggregate could interfere with the chemical reaction needed to make concrete or cause it to be weakened.

The soothing paint color for a bedroom

A bedroom should be a place of relaxation. Choose a paint striking can make a big impact on the look of a room and how you feel in it. But before taking the brush, look what are the colors of paint relaxing invoke a sense of tranquility and ensure a peaceful sleep at night.


More than any other color, blue can relax the senses. But not just any tone. To get the best rest, choose pastel colors like blue for painting instead of choosing bright colors like blue wather on the walls of your bedroom.


The color of spring, green, can be relaxing and cool at the same time, which makes it an ideal choice for the bedroom paint. Choose fresh pastel colors instead of the rich and flashy to get a feeling of peace tones.


Yellow is said to be striking and sunny instead of relaxing, but the right shade of yellow can give a calming effect. Consider a warm honey tone or soft butter yellow to enhance the relaxation factor bedroom.


It is known that the essence of lavender induces sleep, but so does the color. The muted tones of purple, lavender as both lilacs, are ideal for a bedroom.


The neutral warm colors can help create a cozy feeling. Whether you opt for a beige colored paint (also called beige) color as land, remember to sleep well choose subtle shades. You can use white, but choose a tone like eggshells to keep a calming look rather bare.

What is the average cost to remodel a bathroom

A small room bathroom sometimes needs some renovations to make it look not only larger, but also to feel part of the house. Small bathrooms are less expensive to remodel, compared with one principal, but the values ​​depend on factors such as the extent of the work of remodeling, plumbing and decoration. As with any project of this type, get a permit from the city planning office or building and make sure there are no specific rules that your bathroom should meet to be approved.

Paints and supplies

Painting is a quick update and refreshes a bathroom method. You can do it yourself or hire a professional service. The most obvious material needed for this project is the painting, but it is not alone. Baths require semi-gloss latex paint formula resistant to prevent mold growth behind and above the surface of the paint. At the time of writing, the average gallon (3.78 l) of this kind cost US $ 20. In addition to this, you need rollers, brushes, edging tool, masking tape, tarps and paint tray.

Tile floors

You must remove soils and obsolete or mold in a remodeling project tiles. Ceramic tile or stone are durable versatile choices, but are expensive in terms of product and labor. A cheaper alternative is vinyl, but you need a high quality to achieve the look and durability of a tile. The average cost ranges from less than US $ 1 to over $ 12 per square (0.09 square meters) feet, according to Lowe.

Toilets, bathtubs and toilets

If the bathroom is very outdated, oversized accessories such as toilets, bathtubs and toilets may also need replacement. Measure the space bathroom before asking the price of great accessories because unless you go to extract and expand the walls, your new furniture should be similar in size to the old. As this publication, you can expect to pay over $ 400 for a new basic bath, up to US $ 300 for a toilet, and US $ 70 to over $ 400 for a vanity, when you replace all the great accessories bathroom, buy similar styles to match.

Plumbing and accessories

The change of faucets and bathroom accessories can update without the high cost of replacing large appliances. Replacing a faucet, for example, it is a rapid modernization that makes a big difference in the bathroom. The average cost ranges from US $ 20 to US $ 200 at the end of this publication. The style, size and materials affect the cost. The updated fixtures in the bathroom, such as handles, light switches, lighting and mirrors are additional costs that an owner can expect to pay in a remodel. When you have a very tight budget, try to remove and repaint parts of taps, as an alternative to replacement.

Facts and Figures

The cost of bathroom remodeling may vary depending on the extent of the modernization and the actual size of the bathroom. In 2010-11 a report of cost versus value of the magazine “Remodeling”, said the average price for a change of a medium sized bathroom, had a cost of between US $ 14,000 and US $ 18,000 depending on the area which the house stood.

It included a bathroom of 5 x 7 feet (1.50 m by 2.1 m) with a complete renovation of the interior. The value, however, was estimated at just over $ 10,000 as a national average, if the owner had intended to sell the house after completing it.

What is the common slope for a hipped roof

The roof of your house is built with certain standards of measurement according to the type of ceiling. One of these standards measurements applies to the pitch between the eaves (outer edges of the roof) and the flange (central upper level of the roof). The degree of slope is expressed as the “slope” of the roof and hipped roof usually has a common descent.

Types of roof for basic water

The design basics of a hipped roof used in residential construction generally includes four roof planes, or surfaces. These drawings consist of two flat cover covering the ends of the house, from the ridge to the eaves and ending, and two planes which cover the sides of the ridge to the eaves. This roof design is used for homes with a square or rectangular footprint on the ground. Another basic type Modern ceiling design is used for the traces of foundations realize additional rooms or wings of the house that do not create a simple square or rectangular shape.

Calculating the slope for a hipped roof

Calculations for the slope of a gable roof in a residential building focus on the angle at which the roof planes rising vertically from the horizontal line created by the wall plates are on top of each wall outside. The template for this relationship slope calculation is based on a model 12-inch (30 cm), 12 inches (30 cm) describing the common denominator relationship of the horizontal slope calculation.

The angle at which the plane of roof rises explains consistent height in inches above the horizontal line of 12-inch (30 cm), and is described as the numerator of the slope calculation. An expression of an inclination of the hip roof, based on this formula would be 4:12 which means a vertical elevation of 4-inch (10 cm) for every 12 inches (30 cm) horizontal.

A common slope hipped roof

Modern residential building a hipped roof uses common slope coefficients. The most common inclination ratios fall between 4: 12-6: 12 (10:30, 15:30), although there are variations based on factors such as snow, rain and wind conditions, which is related with a steeper slope ratio allows fewer accumulations of snow and rain on the roof, and a lower ratio provides less wind resistance.

The architectural preferences also account for variations in roof slope hipped where design specifications are created to meet the overall appearance of a house along the roofline. Examples of these variations include deck plans with flaps integrated into them, as a cover to four Dutch waters or ceiling designs incorporating ornamental elements in the plans, such as dormers and chimneys.

Design ability

One of the most attractive features of a hipped roof in residential construction is ease of design, especially at the most basic levels with only four planes overhead. While hipped roof is more complicated to build a gabled roof (a roof that has only two levels of cover), calculations for measuring cuts beams and plumb lines tend to be uniform throughout. A hip roof in particular creates a slope equal for all roof surfaces, giving the house a clean, unified look forward lines and minimal variation in the ceiling itself.

What is the average size of sewer pipes in the bathroom

A bathroom has several sections of pipe in the toilet drain system and each has been standardized to make installation simple and consistent. Bathrooms have a corner cabinet, a drainage pipe and tube connecting the cabinet to the main drain line of the house to drain. All tubes are generally the same size.

Soil pipe sizes

The pipe section extending down wardly from the flange, where the toilet is mounted on the floor, is called soil pipe. This tube is always oriented vertically and always connects directly to the flange. The average soil pipe is 3 inches (7.5 cm) in diameter and is usually made ​​of PVC (polyvinyl chloride). Not all bathrooms have a tube from the ground, but most residential drainage systems have it.

This section of pipe connecting the flange having an opening of 4 inches (10 cm) diameter and exit of 3 inches (7.5 cm) diameter to the bend of the cabinet, the next toilet sewage pipe in the set drainage. Most soil pipes less than 2 feet (60 cm) long, but lengths vary by installation.

Sizes bends

The bend of the cabinet is a piece of tube with a 90 ° angle only at one end. Normally it has 3 inches (7.5 cm) diameter, since it is connected to the drain, which is the same size. Most cabinet corners have a straight length of pipe after the bend leading to the main drain line. The length of this straight pipe is usually between 1 and 2 feet (30 to 60 cm) long. These pieces come in all sorts of configurations to suit almost any plumbing situation.

Main drain line

After corner cabinet a number of sanitary sewer pipes that go straight to the main drainage network of the house, also called the battery drain, or the main battery. This tube is also of 3 inches (7.5 cm) diameter, but may be higher in some homes. The normal drain pipe is always 3 inches (7.5 cm) in diameter unless there is some reason to be larger, as an excessive burden to drain. The main drainage lines may include a series of elbows, bends or joints to connect additional drainage lines on their way to the main drain.

Other pipes and parts

Some additional pipes are needed to probe in a bath including power lines, the feed tube and flange. Typical toilet flanges are 4 x 3, which means that the top is 4 inches (10 cm) wide and the bottom is 3 inches (7.5 cm) wide. Supply lines passing through the bath are usually copper or plastic and 1/2 inch (1 cm) in diameter. This is the size of the supply lines in most homes today. The feed tube is smaller, usually 1/8 inch (3 mm) in diameter and about 1 foot (30 cm) long.

Tips on cleaning tile grout

Placing tiles on an area by yourself can save you money and if you follow the instructions carefully, the tiles can produce professional-looking results. One of the most important parts of placing tiles is cleaning grout from the surface of the tile before it dries completely, which will save much work and will ensure that the finished tile is light and bright as it should.

Remove wet grout

Removing the wet grout is not difficult, but if is a careful and properly process, you do not have to scrape the dry grout from the tile surface. Wait a few minutes after you have finished grouting between the tiles, which will give time to the slurry to settle down a bit so that the cleaning process does not move tiles. After a few minutes, clean the surface of the tiles with a damp cloth or sponge. Be careful not to damage the grout between the tiles, as they will damage their appearance. Rinse the cloth frequently to make sure there is no residue.

Remove dry grout

If you cannot clean the grout before it dries, you will be with a thin layer of grout on the tile that you cannot remove only the surface clean with a damp cloth. Instead, apply a solution of water and sugar to the tile and let it sit for a few minutes before scrubbing the grout with a sponge plastic. Do not use steel wool as it will scratch the surface of the tiles and ruin, you could also remove any coating on the tile that makes it shiny and soft. For the solution of sugar, add 1 cup sugar and 1 gallon (3.79 l) of warm water.

Remove epoxy grout

The epoxy grout is much harder than Portland cement and it is impossible to remove once it dries completely. To use it, you must implement a solution to the surface of the tiles before grouting. This solution will prevent the slurry remaining on the tile and the force between the tiles. If no solution is well applied, the epoxy grout remains on the surface and may be impossible to remove. You’ll have to break the tile grout and return to the area.

Dry clean grout

The slurry is usually made of cement, which means it is more porous than the tiles and easier to absorb the stain. Over time the grout gets dirty and this dirt can be difficult to remove because it has infiltrated in the grout. Use oxygen bleach to remove dirt and stains. The oxygen bleach in a bleaching powder that wills not toxic bubbles when mixed with water. These bubbles help remove stains.

The correct proportions for making concrete

Concrete mixes are made from a ratio of 3 items: cement, water and aggregate which is sand and rock. Sometimes, other additives may be added to the mixture for special purposes, such as accelerating the drying process. No proper configuration of the concrete mix, just proportions. Note that the blends may vary depending on the purpose of concrete.

Portland cement and water

Portland cement, when mixed with water, forms a paste which joins all aggregate materials. Water added to the cement reacts chemically with it to begin the drying process. The amount of water affects the thickness and the ability to work of the paste that was formed. The less water is in the mix, stronger and less permeable is the cement produced. Here, the ratio of water and cement is the most important factor that affects the quality of concrete.


The sand is used as a fine aggregate and gravel, or crushed stone, part of the course. The stronger concrete used the hardest mixed with the largest aggregate coarse sand and good. For finer finishes or delicate concrete, use smaller sand stones. For structures such support, large stones strengthen the finished concrete. Moreover, smaller aggregates are required for one that will be pumped.

Proportions of water to cement

The proportions of water is generally around 50%, in severe conditions of sulfate, the Uniform Building Code 1997 recommends a maximum of 45% water in the proportion of cement. For conditions where this material will be exposed to severe conditions of freezing and thawing, the maximum rate is 50%. The permeability or the tendency to absorb water increase exponentially if a mixture of concrete has a higher proportion than 50% water; note that durability and strength will also decrease. A proportion of 45% can withstand about 4500 pounds per square inch (2,401 kilograms per square cm), whereas a proportion of 50% only withstand about 4000 psi (1,814 kilograms per square cm).


A suitable proportion of water to cement is obtained by dividing the amount of water with equal volume of cement. One cubic yard (0.76 cubic meters) of water weighs about 235 pounds (106.5 kilograms), with 470 pounds (213 kilograms) of concrete will have a share of 50%. When you calculate the gallons (liters) of water, multiply the number of gallons by 8.33 to obtain the number of pounds (liters) of water. A formula to add water to cement 2-2-1 could use a cubic yard (0.76 cubic meters) of water, a cubic yard (0.76 cubic meters) of concrete and half cubic yard (0.38 cubic meters) aggregate. Speak well with your concrete supplier to inform you about the best mixing ratio must be used for the job you’re going to do. He can make several suggestions, but up to you to make the final decision for the type of work you are going to perform.

Techniques for painting plasterboards

The plasterboard is a building material which is made of gypsum pressed between two sheets of thick paper used for the construction of interior walls. Painting the plasterboard is not a very difficult task. However, there are certain techniques that help to make the work correctly.

Wall Preparation for painting

Begin to prepare the wall for painting. Take sandpaper of slight degree (grain 200) and smooth’s rough imperfections such as chips and loose fibers. Be sure to wear goggles and mask when you do this. Otherwise, you run the risk to get plaster dust into the eyes and lungs. If you find nail holes, nicks or cuts, use a drywall compound and sand to fill that area as well. Then shake the dust from drywall and check that they are clean and have no oil or grease on them, once the wall is ready for paint, pregnant joints between the panels and rags placed on floors, windows and furniture that are close to the drywall. This will protect their surfaces from unwanted splashes of paint and dust.

Paint the plasterboard

Start by applying a primer; use a primer with a similar color tint as finish; dip the roller into the primer and then apply it to the wall with similar movements up and down. After the primer has dried, double check that the wall has no imperfections. Once the wall is clean and smooth as you like, start painting it; one of the keys to paint the gypsum board successful is to choose the right paint. Although you’ve primed the wall, check the label for a painting that works as a primer and sealer. This will be different from the primer. It will be what you use to paint your wall, because as a primer and sealer at a time will help to conceal imperfections left on the wall. Two coats of paint are sufficient for a good finish. Apply two layers with the same painting technique used with the primer. Make sure the wall is completely dry between the two layers. Also, do not be afraid to use a lot of paint. A common mistake is to use little paint, but should apply in large numbers in each layer.

Specifications for mixing handmade concrete

Although ready-mix concrete may be easier to use for those with no knowledge of home repairs, all concrete is made with sand and gravel aggregate. Concrete made by hand lets you add ingredients such as pigments or decorative gravel. When mixing concrete by hand, it is important to get the right mix of wet and dry ingredients.

Dry ingredients

The dry ingredients of the concrete are commonly 3 parts gravel or coarse aggregate, 2 1/2 parts sand and one part of Portland cement. All these ingredients are available in individual bags in the places where ready-mix concrete is sold. When mixing concrete by hand, you must first mix the dry components with a shovel in a large container such as a truck or large bucket. Make sure your dry and fine ingredients like sand and cement are well mixed and the gravel is incorporated. Always reserves a small amount of dry concrete mix to add to it if you have been very watery.


An additive used in the field of concrete is called combustion ash. This is an aggregate of fine particles such as cement concrete helping to mix and flow. Other additives include plasticizers that cause the concrete to flow, chemical additives to prolong the drying time and powdered pigments for coloring concrete. Decorative stones or crushed glass can be incorporated into the concrete to give it a unique style.


When concrete is mixed, always uses the least amount of water to cement a cohesive material. More water will make concrete more prone to cracking and volume reduction, and takes hardness when compressed. To find the correct ratio of cement to water, you must calculate the weight of the water and the weight of the cement. At a minimum, the concrete precise proportion of 20% water to cement, or a pound (0.45 kg) of water for every four pounds (1.8 kg) of cement should be used in the mixture. Most manufacturers use a specific proportion between 35% and 40%.

Mixing Instructions

Once the dry ingredients are mixed, make a wheel in the center of the mixture. Slowly add water in the middle of the ingredients and thrown dry ingredients into the center for mixing. Keep adding water to the cement until it holds its shape and only see a little water. When concrete is perfectly hydrated, concrete made with ridges should hold the blade in it.

Seven principles of interior design

A well-designed room features the seven principles of interior designs to work together and create a spectacular and beautiful room that pleases the eye, and it is functional for those who live in it. Even for those who cannot afford the services of a professional interior designer, if the seven principles are applied when decorate, the end result will be a beautiful room.

Unity and harmony

The ultimate goal in the interior design of any space is that all components of the room to create a harmonious whole.


Equilibrium is achieved when the visual “weight” of the room is distributed through the room as evenly as possible. For example, the articles of bright colors hanging from the walls will be “heavier” and merge with the colored wall.

Focal point

Each room should have an element that attracts attention naturally when someone comes in. This can be an architectural detail, a fireplace, a work of art or a distinctive piece, or even lights.


A room with good pace first draws the eye to the focal point, and then draws the eye to the other components of the room, creating a flow of visual movement.

Scale / Proportion

The room should be decorated with furniture and details that are of the right scale to the size and shape of the room, and in proportion with each other and with people using the room.

Color and details

Color can add pizzazz and create either a dark room or a bright and airy one. Select the appropriate information and you can improve the look you’re trying to create, or it can be detrimental to it.