What is the common slope for a hipped roof

The roof of your house is built with certain standards of measurement according to the type of ceiling. One of these standards measurements applies to the pitch between the eaves (outer edges of the roof) and the flange (central upper level of the roof). The degree of slope is expressed as the “slope” of the roof and hipped roof usually has a common descent.

Types of roof for basic water

The design basics of a hipped roof used in residential construction generally includes four roof planes, or surfaces. These drawings consist of two flat cover covering the ends of the house, from the ridge to the eaves and ending, and two planes which cover the sides of the ridge to the eaves. This roof design is used for homes with a square or rectangular footprint on the ground. Another basic type Modern ceiling design is used for the traces of foundations realize additional rooms or wings of the house that do not create a simple square or rectangular shape.

Calculating the slope for a hipped roof

Calculations for the slope of a gable roof in a residential building focus on the angle at which the roof planes rising vertically from the horizontal line created by the wall plates are on top of each wall outside. The template for this relationship slope calculation is based on a model 12-inch (30 cm), 12 inches (30 cm) describing the common denominator relationship of the horizontal slope calculation.

The angle at which the plane of roof rises explains consistent height in inches above the horizontal line of 12-inch (30 cm), and is described as the numerator of the slope calculation. An expression of an inclination of the hip roof, based on this formula would be 4:12 which means a vertical elevation of 4-inch (10 cm) for every 12 inches (30 cm) horizontal.

A common slope hipped roof

Modern residential building a hipped roof uses common slope coefficients. The most common inclination ratios fall between 4: 12-6: 12 (10:30, 15:30), although there are variations based on factors such as snow, rain and wind conditions, which is related with a steeper slope ratio allows fewer accumulations of snow and rain on the roof, and a lower ratio provides less wind resistance.

The architectural preferences also account for variations in roof slope hipped where design specifications are created to meet the overall appearance of a house along the roofline. Examples of these variations include deck plans with flaps integrated into them, as a cover to four Dutch waters or ceiling designs incorporating ornamental elements in the plans, such as dormers and chimneys.

Design ability

One of the most attractive features of a hipped roof in residential construction is ease of design, especially at the most basic levels with only four planes overhead. While hipped roof is more complicated to build a gabled roof (a roof that has only two levels of cover), calculations for measuring cuts beams and plumb lines tend to be uniform throughout. A hip roof in particular creates a slope equal for all roof surfaces, giving the house a clean, unified look forward lines and minimal variation in the ceiling itself.

What is the average size of sewer pipes in the bathroom

A bathroom has several sections of pipe in the toilet drain system and each has been standardized to make installation simple and consistent. Bathrooms have a corner cabinet, a drainage pipe and tube connecting the cabinet to the main drain line of the house to drain. All tubes are generally the same size.

Soil pipe sizes

The pipe section extending down wardly from the flange, where the toilet is mounted on the floor, is called soil pipe. This tube is always oriented vertically and always connects directly to the flange. The average soil pipe is 3 inches (7.5 cm) in diameter and is usually made ​​of PVC (polyvinyl chloride). Not all bathrooms have a tube from the ground, but most residential drainage systems have it.

This section of pipe connecting the flange having an opening of 4 inches (10 cm) diameter and exit of 3 inches (7.5 cm) diameter to the bend of the cabinet, the next toilet sewage pipe in the set drainage. Most soil pipes less than 2 feet (60 cm) long, but lengths vary by installation.

Sizes bends

The bend of the cabinet is a piece of tube with a 90 ° angle only at one end. Normally it has 3 inches (7.5 cm) diameter, since it is connected to the drain, which is the same size. Most cabinet corners have a straight length of pipe after the bend leading to the main drain line. The length of this straight pipe is usually between 1 and 2 feet (30 to 60 cm) long. These pieces come in all sorts of configurations to suit almost any plumbing situation.

Main drain line

After corner cabinet a number of sanitary sewer pipes that go straight to the main drainage network of the house, also called the battery drain, or the main battery. This tube is also of 3 inches (7.5 cm) diameter, but may be higher in some homes. The normal drain pipe is always 3 inches (7.5 cm) in diameter unless there is some reason to be larger, as an excessive burden to drain. The main drainage lines may include a series of elbows, bends or joints to connect additional drainage lines on their way to the main drain.

Other pipes and parts

Some additional pipes are needed to probe in a bath including power lines, the feed tube and flange. Typical toilet flanges are 4 x 3, which means that the top is 4 inches (10 cm) wide and the bottom is 3 inches (7.5 cm) wide. Supply lines passing through the bath are usually copper or plastic and 1/2 inch (1 cm) in diameter. This is the size of the supply lines in most homes today. The feed tube is smaller, usually 1/8 inch (3 mm) in diameter and about 1 foot (30 cm) long.

Tips on cleaning tile grout

Placing tiles on an area by yourself can save you money and if you follow the instructions carefully, the tiles can produce professional-looking results. One of the most important parts of placing tiles is cleaning grout from the surface of the tile before it dries completely, which will save much work and will ensure that the finished tile is light and bright as it should.

Remove wet grout

Removing the wet grout is not difficult, but if is a careful and properly process, you do not have to scrape the dry grout from the tile surface. Wait a few minutes after you have finished grouting between the tiles, which will give time to the slurry to settle down a bit so that the cleaning process does not move tiles. After a few minutes, clean the surface of the tiles with a damp cloth or sponge. Be careful not to damage the grout between the tiles, as they will damage their appearance. Rinse the cloth frequently to make sure there is no residue.

Remove dry grout

If you cannot clean the grout before it dries, you will be with a thin layer of grout on the tile that you cannot remove only the surface clean with a damp cloth. Instead, apply a solution of water and sugar to the tile and let it sit for a few minutes before scrubbing the grout with a sponge plastic. Do not use steel wool as it will scratch the surface of the tiles and ruin, you could also remove any coating on the tile that makes it shiny and soft. For the solution of sugar, add 1 cup sugar and 1 gallon (3.79 l) of warm water.

Remove epoxy grout

The epoxy grout is much harder than Portland cement and it is impossible to remove once it dries completely. To use it, you must implement a solution to the surface of the tiles before grouting. This solution will prevent the slurry remaining on the tile and the force between the tiles. If no solution is well applied, the epoxy grout remains on the surface and may be impossible to remove. You’ll have to break the tile grout and return to the area.

Dry clean grout

The slurry is usually made of cement, which means it is more porous than the tiles and easier to absorb the stain. Over time the grout gets dirty and this dirt can be difficult to remove because it has infiltrated in the grout. Use oxygen bleach to remove dirt and stains. The oxygen bleach in a bleaching powder that wills not toxic bubbles when mixed with water. These bubbles help remove stains.

The correct proportions for making concrete

Concrete mixes are made from a ratio of 3 items: cement, water and aggregate which is sand and rock. Sometimes, other additives may be added to the mixture for special purposes, such as accelerating the drying process. No proper configuration of the concrete mix, just proportions. Note that the blends may vary depending on the purpose of concrete.

Portland cement and water

Portland cement, when mixed with water, forms a paste which joins all aggregate materials. Water added to the cement reacts chemically with it to begin the drying process. The amount of water affects the thickness and the ability to work of the paste that was formed. The less water is in the mix, stronger and less permeable is the cement produced. Here, the ratio of water and cement is the most important factor that affects the quality of concrete.


The sand is used as a fine aggregate and gravel, or crushed stone, part of the course. The stronger concrete used the hardest mixed with the largest aggregate coarse sand and good. For finer finishes or delicate concrete, use smaller sand stones. For structures such support, large stones strengthen the finished concrete. Moreover, smaller aggregates are required for one that will be pumped.

Proportions of water to cement

The proportions of water is generally around 50%, in severe conditions of sulfate, the Uniform Building Code 1997 recommends a maximum of 45% water in the proportion of cement. For conditions where this material will be exposed to severe conditions of freezing and thawing, the maximum rate is 50%. The permeability or the tendency to absorb water increase exponentially if a mixture of concrete has a higher proportion than 50% water; note that durability and strength will also decrease. A proportion of 45% can withstand about 4500 pounds per square inch (2,401 kilograms per square cm), whereas a proportion of 50% only withstand about 4000 psi (1,814 kilograms per square cm).


A suitable proportion of water to cement is obtained by dividing the amount of water with equal volume of cement. One cubic yard (0.76 cubic meters) of water weighs about 235 pounds (106.5 kilograms), with 470 pounds (213 kilograms) of concrete will have a share of 50%. When you calculate the gallons (liters) of water, multiply the number of gallons by 8.33 to obtain the number of pounds (liters) of water. A formula to add water to cement 2-2-1 could use a cubic yard (0.76 cubic meters) of water, a cubic yard (0.76 cubic meters) of concrete and half cubic yard (0.38 cubic meters) aggregate. Speak well with your concrete supplier to inform you about the best mixing ratio must be used for the job you’re going to do. He can make several suggestions, but up to you to make the final decision for the type of work you are going to perform.

Techniques for painting plasterboards

The plasterboard is a building material which is made of gypsum pressed between two sheets of thick paper used for the construction of interior walls. Painting the plasterboard is not a very difficult task. However, there are certain techniques that help to make the work correctly.

Wall Preparation for painting

Begin to prepare the wall for painting. Take sandpaper of slight degree (grain 200) and smooth’s rough imperfections such as chips and loose fibers. Be sure to wear goggles and mask when you do this. Otherwise, you run the risk to get plaster dust into the eyes and lungs. If you find nail holes, nicks or cuts, use a drywall compound and sand to fill that area as well. Then shake the dust from drywall and check that they are clean and have no oil or grease on them, once the wall is ready for paint, pregnant joints between the panels and rags placed on floors, windows and furniture that are close to the drywall. This will protect their surfaces from unwanted splashes of paint and dust.

Paint the plasterboard

Start by applying a primer; use a primer with a similar color tint as finish; dip the roller into the primer and then apply it to the wall with similar movements up and down. After the primer has dried, double check that the wall has no imperfections. Once the wall is clean and smooth as you like, start painting it; one of the keys to paint the gypsum board successful is to choose the right paint. Although you’ve primed the wall, check the label for a painting that works as a primer and sealer. This will be different from the primer. It will be what you use to paint your wall, because as a primer and sealer at a time will help to conceal imperfections left on the wall. Two coats of paint are sufficient for a good finish. Apply two layers with the same painting technique used with the primer. Make sure the wall is completely dry between the two layers. Also, do not be afraid to use a lot of paint. A common mistake is to use little paint, but should apply in large numbers in each layer.

Specifications for mixing handmade concrete

Although ready-mix concrete may be easier to use for those with no knowledge of home repairs, all concrete is made with sand and gravel aggregate. Concrete made by hand lets you add ingredients such as pigments or decorative gravel. When mixing concrete by hand, it is important to get the right mix of wet and dry ingredients.

Dry ingredients

The dry ingredients of the concrete are commonly 3 parts gravel or coarse aggregate, 2 1/2 parts sand and one part of Portland cement. All these ingredients are available in individual bags in the places where ready-mix concrete is sold. When mixing concrete by hand, you must first mix the dry components with a shovel in a large container such as a truck or large bucket. Make sure your dry and fine ingredients like sand and cement are well mixed and the gravel is incorporated. Always reserves a small amount of dry concrete mix to add to it if you have been very watery.


An additive used in the field of concrete is called combustion ash. This is an aggregate of fine particles such as cement concrete helping to mix and flow. Other additives include plasticizers that cause the concrete to flow, chemical additives to prolong the drying time and powdered pigments for coloring concrete. Decorative stones or crushed glass can be incorporated into the concrete to give it a unique style.


When concrete is mixed, always uses the least amount of water to cement a cohesive material. More water will make concrete more prone to cracking and volume reduction, and takes hardness when compressed. To find the correct ratio of cement to water, you must calculate the weight of the water and the weight of the cement. At a minimum, the concrete precise proportion of 20% water to cement, or a pound (0.45 kg) of water for every four pounds (1.8 kg) of cement should be used in the mixture. Most manufacturers use a specific proportion between 35% and 40%.

Mixing Instructions

Once the dry ingredients are mixed, make a wheel in the center of the mixture. Slowly add water in the middle of the ingredients and thrown dry ingredients into the center for mixing. Keep adding water to the cement until it holds its shape and only see a little water. When concrete is perfectly hydrated, concrete made with ridges should hold the blade in it.

Seven principles of interior design

A well-designed room features the seven principles of interior designs to work together and create a spectacular and beautiful room that pleases the eye, and it is functional for those who live in it. Even for those who cannot afford the services of a professional interior designer, if the seven principles are applied when decorate, the end result will be a beautiful room.

Unity and harmony

The ultimate goal in the interior design of any space is that all components of the room to create a harmonious whole.


Equilibrium is achieved when the visual “weight” of the room is distributed through the room as evenly as possible. For example, the articles of bright colors hanging from the walls will be “heavier” and merge with the colored wall.

Focal point

Each room should have an element that attracts attention naturally when someone comes in. This can be an architectural detail, a fireplace, a work of art or a distinctive piece, or even lights.


A room with good pace first draws the eye to the focal point, and then draws the eye to the other components of the room, creating a flow of visual movement.

Scale / Proportion

The room should be decorated with furniture and details that are of the right scale to the size and shape of the room, and in proportion with each other and with people using the room.

Color and details

Color can add pizzazz and create either a dark room or a bright and airy one. Select the appropriate information and you can improve the look you’re trying to create, or it can be detrimental to it.

Removing urine odor in bathroom

The smell of urine of human or animal is strong and unpleasant, and when your bathroom smells of urine is frustrating and embarrassing. There is more than one way to make your bathroom smell good. If you can discover the cause of a smelly bathroom, you can remedy the situation quickly. But maybe you never can determine the source of odor. Despite this, you can do something to make your bathroom smell good.


  1. Look closely on all surfaces of your bathroom, especially near and behind the toilet. If you have a box of pebbles cat in your bathroom, look at the walls and the floor near it. Checks for pee stains or wet spots on walls and floors. Also seek for dried urine, which may have formed yellow crystals. A suggestion of Thriftyfun.com includes an ultraviolet light turn on bathroom surfaces to detect urine stains that you cannot normally see.
  2. Clean any urine of human or pet you find. Use a disinfectant cleaner and deodorizer or just vinegar. Alternately, use a product specifically made to dissolve the pet urine, which may be a better choice if you have a carpeted bathroom. If this step works to remove the smell of urine in the bathroom, just clean all surfaces more often.
  3. Wash bath mats, especially those near the toilet or cat box.
  4. Clean your toilet completely with hard toilet brush, taking care to clean the edge below. Clean the entire toilet with disinfectant and deodorizing cleaner. Clean under the seat, around the bolts out of the toilet and in the base. As mentioned in Thriftyfun.com, dry urine may remain below the rim, outside and below the toilet seat.
  5. Remove the carpet, tile or vinyl flooring if the urine smell persists. Urine may have crossed the carpet, tile or vinyl and come to the subfloor. If this is the case, consider replacing the subfloor and floor covering. If you cannot do, you use a sealer as Kills and replace the floor covering. The website The Fly Lady also recommends that if urine has leaked on the floor of the walls, you need to paint the walls with Kills and also repaint the bathroom.

Removing a chimney creosote


  1. Buy a brush that fits the chimney flue. You can find them at most hardware and home improvement stores. Consult the manufacturer’s manual to determine fireplace’s size of the barrel. You also need to weigh 15 to 20 pounds (6.08 to 9 kg) and rope. The weight should fit down the chimney without cracking the tiles.
  2. Seal with cloth and tape. Closes the gate to catch creosote and soot falling. Close all doors and windows to reduce airflow while cleaning. Use protective gloves and a mask when cleaning air to avoid injury.
  3. Get on the roof. Attach weight to the end of the rope. The weight helps move the brush to clean the chimney. Move it up and down on either side of the fireplace. Lower the rope a little while eliminating creosote. Use a flashlight to make sure the chimney is clean. Return in home to clean the remains of fallen creosote and soot.
  4. Remove the fabric and place it under the door. Open or remove the gate slowly. Use a vacuum cleaner to remove creosote and soot from home and the surrounding area. Use gloves and a mask when cleaning air.
  5. Use a chemical cleaner such as chimney sweeping log or liquid, to reduce creosote buildup after cleaning. Chemical cover the walls of the fireplace with an acid that breaks creosote particles. Chemical cleaners remove small amounts of creosote and not replace chimney sweeps. You can find these cleaners in most stores and home improvement warehouses.

Tips & Warnings

  • The cleaning rollers of fiberglass or metal are used by professional cleaning of chimneys and are available to consumers as an alternative to the rope. Clean your chimney at least once a year to prevent creosote buildup. Run weekly checkups to determine the speed of the formation of creosote on the chimney walls. Clean it more often, depending on the usage.
  • Hire a professional chimney cleaner if you cannot do it properly. The creosote buildup can cause a fire in your home and pollute the air, which can cause illness.

Placing tiles in the bathroom, for beginners

Placing tiles may seem difficult for someone who has never tried before this task. However, you will probably find that the most difficult task is to remove and replace the toilet, everything else is easy. While placing tiles on a bathroom is easy because it is a small room, you can also present some challenges, such as cut of the tiles to fit in corners or around pipes. You must be prepared for this work will take a few days, and you should plan ahead if you have an extra bathroom.


Prepare the bathroom floor

  1. Remove the toilet of the bathroom. You can remove it after closing the water stopcock and empty the water tank. Then disconnect the water connection of the toilet. Then remove the covers of the screws that hold the toilet to the floor, and unscrew the nuts with a wrench. Use a utility knife to cut the putty that seals the toilet to the floor. Lift the toilet right up to remove it. Then, place a damp cloth on the rim of the opening to prevent the gas from sewers entering your home.
  2. Relieve the base molding with a spatula. No need to remove the socket. However, remove the backboard and lift your tile floor about 3/4 (1.91 cm) inches. So if you think that the socket will be very small, you can remove it as well.
  3. If you also plan to replace the sink, you should remove it now. If you want to keep it, then leave it in place.
  4. Remove all the old ground if necessary. You can find more information on how to remove different types of floors .Avoid removing vinyl flooring that contains asbestos. If a large part of the floor is loose or lifted, you will need to remove it before continuing.
  5. Jacking galvanized bolts of 2 1/2 inches (6.35 cm) across the floor beams within intervals of 8 inches (20.32 cm). You can find the beams by drilling a small hole near the wall. If the piece breaks off and is a hollow space, move 1 inch (2.54 cm) and try again. The beams are generally between 16 and 24 inches (40.64 cm and 60.96 cm) distance between them. This step will ensure that the subsoil and base are secure.
  6. Undermines below the rim of the door to make room for the raised floor. Place a piece of backboard, a tile and two pieces of cardboard next to the door. Then cut and remove the trim with a saw or jamb saw.
  7. Sweep and clean the floor thoroughly. If you leave on the floor vinyl or linoleum in place, remove the paint to remove waxy residue. Use a pickling commercial vinyl or linoleum according to the instructions on the label.
  8. Use duct tapes to wrap the copper pipes that pass through the floor to prevent grout corrode copper. You should also cover the bottom of the tub, shower and sink with masking tape to protect mortar and grout.
  9. Remove the loose sections of vinyl and fill the gaps with mortar tail, using the flat of the knife.

Install the backboard

  1. Cut and placed all the pieces of the backboard. Leave a space between the tables. You must leave a space of several inches between the backboard and the wall. Escalon tables so you never have four corners that are on a single point. You can make straight cuts with a knife for marking and corners, circles and curves with a drywall saw.
  2. Label the tables and set them aside.
  3. Vacuuming the floor.
  4. Mix as directed by the label cola.
  5. Spread glue on the floor. It covers only enough to place a piece of backboard area. Spread it in one direction using a notched trowel 1/4 inch (0.64 cm) at an angle of 45 degrees.
  6. Screw the backboard using screws 1 1/4 inch (3.18 cm). These screws must be placed every 6 inches (15.24 cm) around the edges of the backboard and every 8 inches (20.32 cm) along the surface of the table.
  7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until you have placed all the reinforcement boards.
  8. Press the cloth tape over joints and places slight tail mortar coverage on it with the flat side of the trowel.
  9. Spread glue flush with the tape using the flat side of the trowel.
  10. Removes roughness scraping with a spatula once the tail is firm but not hard. Also, drag the spatula over the heads of the screws to remove the lumps and screws which have been protruded.

Place your tile

  1. Make a general test to determine the best arrangement of your tiles. Start at the center and put the tiles out. Your goal should be to have equal spaces on the walls. However, you should use full tiles at entrances, along the tub or shower because no sockets covering the edges if they are not even. Use separators tiles to keep them at the correct distance between them. Also, you do not want the tiles directly touch the tub or other devices. Try not to cut the tiles of a width less than 2 inches (5.08 cm). Sets the tile until it meets most of these instructions
  2. Cover one side of the two tables of fine guide-tables, rights that are 1 foot (30 cm) shorter than the length and width of the floor-tape (to prevent mortar tail sticking), then screw them to flat. Tables should be close to the wall to allow the whole place all tiles without removing tables guide. Make sure the tables are straight and in the right angle to the other.
  3. Mix the mortar glue as indicated by the label. Mix only the amount you will use for the next hour.
  4. Moisten the backboard with a wet sponge to prevent the glue dries.
  5. With a spatula, spreading mortar few feet tall, this should spread with the flat side of the spatula to distribute it across the floor. Then, comb through the toothed portion of the blade at an angle of 45 degrees.
  6. Place the tiles against the guides. Use spacers between the tiles to ensure that they are of equal width.
  7. Repeat steps 3-6 until the tiles are placed whole. Remove the excess glue mortar between the tiles.
  8. Wait until the glue hardens. The time may vary; review the instructions in the package.
  9. Remove guide boards.
  10. Cut the perimeter tiles and other cuts. If you try to cut oddly shaped, begins making a cardboard template. Then, trace the outline and cut tile with a tile cutter or wet tile saw. To make straight cuts, most hardware stores or shops selling tiles will cut you if you need to take (and if you bought there). Otherwise, the tiles can be cut with a tile cutter or wet tile saw. Curved cuts can be made with wire cutters to cut tiles.
  11. Place and perimeter cut tiles as you did in steps 3 to 6. If there is a very narrow area for your spatula, apply glue mortar on the tile instead of on the floor before placing.

Prepare grouting

  1. A ring extension subject on toilet rim by removing the screws, applying a drop of silicone mastic caulking and adjusting on the existing flange with brass or stainless steel screws.
  2. Tie a strip of transition at the entrance.
  3. Place a rebar in the spaces between the tiles and the wall, tub, shower and sink. This rod will keep the grout away from these areas so that you can caulk later.
  4. Wait at least 24 hours for tiles and mortar tail before proceeding to the next step is set.

Grouting on tiles

  1. Mix the grout as indicated in the instructions so that the consistency is similar to mashed potatoes.
  2. Talca dipping in water and use it to grouting the floor.
  3. Use the trowel to press the grout into the joints so that it reaches the floor. Move the trowel diagonally from joints.
  4. Holding the trowel at an angle of 45 degrees, remove the excess grout.
  5. Gently remove the grout from the tile surface with a damp sponge; be careful not to remove the seals. If you remove the grout sponge, wait a few minutes and try again. Rinse the sponge often.
  6. Rinse the floor a second time with a sponge and water. Dry the tiles with a dry tissue curl.
  7. Remove the rebar and caulk the joints after leaving the grout to cure overnight.
  8. Replace the toilet, sockets (if necessary), the molding of the socket and anything else you have removed the bathroom.
  9. After a few days, seal the tile grout sealer.

Tips & Warnings

  • No need to cut the tile so that it curves around the rim of the toilet. Instead, cut it into squares so that almost touch it, the corners are covered with the toilet. To ensure that the tile is straight and evenly separated placed a wooden board the same width as the spacers between the tiles as you’re standing.
  • Use protective goggles when cutting tiles.